Zogzas and others (1994) envision one visible density relies on the quantity shrinking coefficient and you can wetness blogs (Dining table step 3, Eq

Visible density (?b) models

Considering Krokida and you will Philippopoulos (2005) , obvious thickness was a function of wetness content, form of good, and you may air frequency proportion. Almost all of the patterns to possess anticipating noticeable occurrence utilized in this new literature try empirical; standard otherwise theoretic models have only started advised by the a finite quantity of people ( Rahman while some 1996 ). The newest noticeable thickness habits have been created predicated on wetness blogs (X), as opposed to as a result of the outcomes of drying out temperatures; not many consider shrinking, though it is extreme on the almost all instances ( Moreira while others 2000 ; ).

18), where the volumetric shrinking coefficient (?) is a linear function of moisture content. Boukouvalas and others (2006) mention that the parameters ( , ?) included in Eq. 18 of Table 3 depend on the drying method and processing conditions; as such, they propose Eq. 19, which considers ? to be a function of , ?w, and X.

Moreira while some (2000) hold you to noticeable occurrence can be acquired utilising the visible thickness of your strong ( ) additionally the mass out-of h2o ( ) early in drying out given that a guide for very first regularity (Eq. 20, Desk 3).

In Eq. 18 and 19, X= 0 is taken as a reference; in Eq. 20, the reference is X0= moisture content at the onset of drying.

The most recent theoretical model (Eq. 21) was put forth by Khalloufi and others (2010) . They consider ?b to be a function of the initial porosity of the material (?), X, ?w, ?s, ?(X), and collapse [?(X)].

Because the ?(X) and you can ?(X) certainly are the characteristics regarding dampness articles, he could be determined by running requirements, the sort of your equipment becoming dried, the fresh drying out means, in addition to drying out stage ( Khalloufi while some 2010 ).

The fresh new failure equation (Eq. 27) suggested because of the Khalloufi and others (2009) pledges the failure mode usually begins in one single and finishes inside the zero.

If issue is within a beneficial rubbery condition, diminishing compensates nearly entirely having water loss, while the number of the information presented decreases linearly having moisture blogs ( ). However, low-temperatures dehydration out of food products prevents the dampness content regarding cardio of your own sito per incontri kink friendly thing out of ever-being much greater than that the exterior, minimizing interior worry, and consequently, breaking ( Bai and others 2002 ).

An erroneous formula of ?(X) and you will ?(X) gives rise so you can a mistake regarding computation of noticeable thickness. This occurs often, as most of article writers assume that shrinking try linear ( Zogzas although some 1994 ; Moreira while some 2000 ; ), otherwise they fit they in order to an additional-studies polynomial ( Khalloufi while some 2010 ).

Upcoming models should try to portray the brand new behavior away from obvious density having better precision, looking at X plus the thermal history of the material becoming dehydrated.


The tendencies of density with respect to moisture content and drying temperature have been discussed within the framework of currently available theories of second-order phase changes, structural changes, and changes in chemical composition occurring in the mass and heat transference processes. The majority of the empirical and theoretical equations representing true density do not fit the concave-down tendencies of certain materials. Equations for calculating apparent density based on shrinking and collapse are not reliable, as errors arise from failing to consider minimal variations in volume at the end of the drying process. It is recommended that variations in ?s and ?w as a function of the internal temperature of the material, according to the drying conditions (X, T), be included to yield a better fit to the tendencies of density with respect to X.